DESIGN AND METHODS: Clinical concentrations of ABC were analysed in an animal model in vivo (intravital microscopy using Male C57BL/6-WT or P2rx7-KO mice), in human endothelial cells and leukocytes in vitro (flow chamber), or in leukocyte Mac-1 expression (flow cytometry).
RESULTS: ABC reduced leukocyte rolling velocity and increased rolling flux and adhesion both in vivo and in vitro. These effects were absent in P2rx7-KO mice and following the specific blockade of ATP-P2X7 receptors in WT animals. Further pharmacological characterisation in flow chamber experiments confirmed the role of ATP-P2X7 receptors and suggested that those located on leukocytes were particularly implicated. Activation of ATP-P2X7 receptors is needed for expression of leukocytic Mac-1. Similar effects were obtained with ddI.
CONCLUSIONS: ABC induces leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions through a mechanism involving interference with purine-signalling pathways via ATP-P2X7 receptors located mainly on leukocytes. Our data is compatible with existing clinical data revealing an increased cardiovascular risk in ABC-treated patients
METHODS: Balb/c mice received TNBS (175 mg/kg, 100 μl, i.r.) and six and thirty hours later were administered with EH (1 g/kg, i.p.). Mice were weighted daily and after sacrificing (2 and 4 days after TNBS) we analyzed mucosal histology, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (qPCR) and NF-κB and Iκβ-α protein levels. The chemical characterization of the EH was determined by LC-MS/MS.
RESULTS: The administration of EH to TNBS-treated mice prevented (P < 0.05) the loss of body weight and significantly reduced in the colon: a) histological damage score, b) MPO enzymatic activity c) the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules and d) Iκβ-α degradation and nuclear NF-κβ protein levels. The LC-MS analysis detected metabolites such as polyphenols and fatty acids.
CONCLUSION: Systemic administration of the ethanolic extract of H. polyrhizus exerts an anti-inflammatory effect and prevents murine colitis induced by TNBS.
METHODS: Human monocytes and U937-derived macrophages were polarized towards the M1 and M2 phenotypes and the expression levels of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, Jagged 1 (Jag1) and delta-like 4 (Dll4) were evaluated. The effects of macrophages on the expression of hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1, the main target of Notch signalling) and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP, enterocyte marker) in epithelial cells in co-culture were also analysed. Phenotype macrophage markers and Notch signalling were evaluated in the mucosa of CD patients.
RESULTS: M1 macrophages were associated with HIF-1-dependent induction of Jag1 and Dll4, which increased HES1 protein levels and IAP activity in co-cultured epithelial cells. In the mucosa of CD patients a high percentage of M1 macrophages expressed both HIF-1α and Jag1 while M2 macrophages mainly expressed HIF-2α and we detected a good correlation between the ratio of M1/M2 macrophages and both HES1 and IAP protein levels.
CONCLUSION: M1, but not M2, macrophages are associated with HIF-1-dependent induction of Notch ligands and activation of epithelial Notch signalling pathway. In the mucosa of chronic CD patients, the prevalence of M2 macrophages is associated with diminution of Notch signalling and impaired enterocyte differentiation.
METHODS: We evaluated the acute effects of clinically relevant concentrations of the most widely used NRTIs, alone or combined with acetaminophen, on mitochondrial function and cellular viability.
RESULTS: The purine analogues abacavir and didanosine produced an immediate and concentration-dependent inhibition of oxygen consumption and complex I and III activity. This inhibition was accompanied by an undermining of mitochondrial function, with increased production of reactive oxygen species and reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP levels. However, this interference did not compromise cell survival. Co-administration with concentrations of acetaminophen below those considered hepatotoxic exacerbated the deleterious effects of both compounds on mitochondrial function and compromised cellular viability, showing a clear correlation with diminished glutathione levels.
CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous presence of purine analogues and low concentrations of acetaminophen significantly potentiates mitochondrial dysfunction, increasing the risk of liver injury. This new mechanism is relevant given the liver's susceptibility to mitochondrial dysfunction-related toxicity and the tendency of the HIV infection to increase oxidative stress.
AIMS: To investigate the effect of simvastatin and ezetimibe on mitochondrial function and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in polymorphonuclear cells of hyperlipidemic patients.
METHODS: Thirty-nine hyperlipidemic patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: one received simvastatin (40 mg/day) and the other received ezetimibe (10 mg/day) for 4 weeks, after which both groups were administered combined therapy for an additional 4-week period. Lipid profile, mitochondrial parameters (oxygen consumption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and membrane potential), glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions and adhesion molecules -VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, were evaluated.
RESULTS: An improvement in lipid profile was observed after administration of simvastatin or ezetimibe alone (LDLc: -40.2 vs -19.6%, respectively), though this effect was stronger with the former (p < 0.001), and a further reduction was registered when the two were combined (LDLc: -50.7% vs -56.8%, respectively). In addition to this, simvastatin, ezetimibe and simvastatin + ezetimibe significantly increased oxygen consumption, membrane potential and glutathione content, and decreased levels of ROS, thereby improving mitochondrial function. Furthermore, simvastatin + ezetimibe increased catalase activity. In addition, simvastatin and simvastatin/ezetimibe improved leukocyte/endothelium interactions by decreasing leukocyte rolling and adhesion and increasing leukocyte rolling velocity. Finally, simvastatin, ezetimibe and simvastatin + ezetimibe reduced levels of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and ezetimibe + simvastatin significantly decreased levels of E-selectin.
CONCLUSION: Co-administration of simvastatin and ezetimibe has an additive cholesterol-lowering effect and beneficial consequences for mitochondrial function and leukocyte/endothelium interactions in leukocytes of hypercholesterolemic patients.
METHODS: Rats received a single dose of ASA (150 mg/kg, p.o.) with or without pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, and gastric injury and epithelial autophagy were evaluated 3 h later. The effects of ASA on cell viability and autophagy were also evaluated in gastric epithelial AGS cells.
RESULTS: Basal autophagy in the gastric mucosa was inhibited by ASA as demonstrated by increased levels of p62 and ubiquitinated proteins and total LC3 and a reduced LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Similarly, ASA increased p62 and decreased LC3-II accumulation and the number of EmGFP/LC3B puncta in AGS cells. ASA activated the PI3K/Akt-GSK3-mTOR pathway, which phosphorylates ULK1 to prevent autophagy initiation, changes that were inhibited by the PI3K-inhibitor wortmannin. Autophagy inhibition seems to enhance the vulnerability of gastric epithelial cells as a combination of ASA with 3-methyladenine exacerbated rat gastric damage and AGS cell apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the importance of autophagy in the gastric mucosa as a protective mechanism when the epithelium is injured. In the stomach, aspirin induces mucosal damage and reduces autophagy, thus, eliminating a protective mechanism that epithelial cells could use to escape death. We hypothesize that the combination of aspirin with drugs that activate autophagy could protect against gastric damage.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicentre, cross-sectional, case-control study employed a population of 24 anorexic female patients and 36 controls. We evaluated anthropometric and metabolic parameters, interactions between leucocytes polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) including E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1).
RESULTS: Anorexia nervosa was related to a decrease in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, and an increase in HDL cholesterol. These effects disappeared after adjusting for BMI. Anorexia nervosa induced a decrease in PMN rolling velocity and an increase in PMN rolling flux and PMN adhesion. Increases in IL-6 and TNF-α and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 were also observed.
CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis of an association between anorexia nervosa, inflammation and the induction of leucocyte-endothelium interactions. These findings may explain, in part at least, the increased risk of vascular disease among patients with anorexia nervosa.
METHODS: The study population consisted of 40 reproductive-age women with PCOS, who underwent treatment with metformin during a 12-week period, and their corresponding matched controls (n = 44). We evaluated endocrinological parameters, adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin) and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)) in serum. In addition, interactions between human umbilical vein endothelial cells and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells were assessed by flow chamber microscopy. In addition, a group of type 2 diabetes patients who underwent treatment with metformin during a 12-week period was incorporated into the study.
RESULTS: Metformin produced beneficial effects on PCOS patients by decreasing polymorphonuclear (PMN) rolling flux and adhesion. It also decreased levels of ICAM-1, E-selectin, IL-6 and ΤΝFα. In addition, metformin induced an improvement of endocrine and anthropometric parameters in PCOS subjects by reducing glucose, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and androstendione, and by increasing dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S). Metformin also had beneficial effects in type 2 diabetic subjects by reducing body weight, waist circumference and PMN adhesion, and by increasing PMN rolling velocity.
CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the modulating effect of metformin on leukocyte/endothelium interactions. These findings may explain the potential beneficial effect of metformin in reducing the risk of vascular events in PCOS patients and in insulin resistance conditions.
Progastrin represses the alternative activation of human macrophages and modulates their influence on coloncancer epithelial cells.
Inflammation is part of a complex biological response of vascular tissue to pathogens or damaged cells. First inflammatory cells attempt to remove the injurious stimuli and this is followed by a healing process mediated principally by phagocytosis of senescent cells. Hypoxia and p38-MAPK are associated with inflammation, and hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been detected in inflamed tissues. We aimed to analyse the role of p38-MAPK and HIF-1 in the transcriptional regulation of CD36, a class B scavenger receptor, and its ligand thrombospondin (TSP-1) in macrophages and to evaluate the involvement of this pathway in phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. We have also assessed HIF-1α, p38-MAPK and CD36 immunostaining in the mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Results show that hypoxia increases neutrophil phagocytosis by macrophages and induces the expression of CD36 and TSP-1. Addition of a p38-MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced the increase in CD36 and TSP-1 expression provoked by hypoxia and decreased HIF-1α stabilization in macrophages. Transient transfection of macrophages with a miHIF-1α-targeting vector blocked the increase in mRNA expression of CD36 and TSP-1 during hypoxia and reduced phagocytosis, thus highlighting a role for the transcriptional activity of HIF-1. CD36 and TSP-1 were necessary for the phagocytosis of neutrophils induced by hypoxic macrophages, since functional blockade of these proteins undermined this process. Immunohistochemical studies revealed CD36, HIF-1α and p38-MAPK expression in the mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. A positive and significant correlation between HIF-1α and CD36 expression and CD36 and p38-MAPK expression was observed in cells of the lamina propria of the damaged mucosa. Our results demonstrate a HIF-1-dependent up-regulation of CD36 and TSP-1 that mediates the increased phagocytosis of neutrophils by macrophages during hypoxia. Moreover, they suggest that CD36 expression in the damaged mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease depends on p38-MAPK and HIF-1 activity.
Hepatic toxicity and metabolic disorders are major adverse effects elicited during the pharmacological treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Efavirenz (EFV), the most widely used non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), has been associated with these events, with recent studies implicating it in stress responses involving mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in human hepatic cells. To expand these findings, we analyzed the influence of EFV on the expression profile of selected stress and toxicity genes in these cells. Significant up-regulation was observed with Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1), which indicated metabolic stress. Several genes directly related to oxidative stress and damage exhibited increased expression, including Methalothionein 2A (MT2A), Heat shock 70kDa protein 6 (HSPA6), Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) and DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3). In addition, Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) was enhanced, whereas mRNA levels of the inflammatory genes Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) and Serpin peptidase inhibitor (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 1 (SERPINE1) decreased and increased, respectively. This profile of gene expression supports previous data demonstrating altered mitochondrial function and presence of oxidative stress/damage in EFV-treated hepatic cells, and may be of relevance in the search for molecular targets with therapeutic potential to be employed in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the hepatic toxicity associated with HIV therapy.
Evidence for a relationship between mitochondrial Complex I activity and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase during nitroglycerin tolerance: Effects of mitochondrial antioxidants.
The medical use of nitroglycerin (GTN) is limited by patient tolerance. The present study evaluated the role of mitochondrial Complex I in GTN biotransformation and the therapeutic effect of mitochondrial antioxidants. The development of GTN tolerance (in rat and human vessels) produced a decrease in mitochondrial O(2) consumption. Co-incubation with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone (MQ, 10(-6)mol/L) or with glutathione ester (GEE, 10(-4)mol/L) blocked GTN tolerance and the effects of GTN on mitochondrial respiration and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) activity. Biotransformation of GTN depended on the mitochondria being functionally active, particularly mitochondrial Complex I. Tolerance induced mitochondrial ROS production and oxidative stress, though these effects were not detected in HUVECρ(0) cells or Complex I mutant cells. Experiments performed to evaluate Complex I-dependent respiration demonstrated that its inhibition by GTN was prevented by the antioxidants in control samples. These results point to a key role for mitochondrial Complex I in the adequate functioning of ALDH-2. In addition, we have identified mitochondrial Complex I as one of the targets at which the initial oxidative stress responsible for GTN tolerance takes place. Our data also suggest a role for mitochondrial-antioxidants as therapeutic tools in the control of the tolerance that accompanies chronic nitrate use.
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic master switch expressed in a great number ofcells and tissues. AMPK is thought to modulate the cellular response to different stresses that increase cellular AMP concentration. The adenosine analog, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) is an AMPK activator used in many studies to assess the effects ofAMPK activation on cellular metabolism and function. However, the effect of AICAR on cell metabolism reaches many different pathways and metabolites, some of which do not seem to be fully related to AMPK activation. We have now for the first time used NMR metabolomics onhuman umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) for the study of the global metabolic impact ofAMPK activation by AICAR. In our study, incubation with AICAR activates AMPK and is associated with, among others, broad metabolic alterations in energy metabolism and phospholipid biosynthesis. Using NMR spectroscopy and metabolic network tools, we analyzed the connections between the different metabolic switches activated by AICAR. Our approach reveals a strong interconnection between different phospholipid precursors and oxidation by-products. Metabolomicsprofiling is a useful tool for detecting major metabolic alterations, generating new hypotheses and provides some insight about the different molecular correlations in a complex system. The present study shows that AICAR induces metabolic effects in cell metabolism well beyond energy production pathways.
Hepatotoxicity is a very common side effect associated with the pharmacological treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Efavirenz (EFV) is the most widely used nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor administered for the control of HIV and some of its toxic effects in hepatic cells have been recently shown to display features of mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we studied the activation of autophagy and, in particular, mitophagy, the main mitochondrial turnover mechanism, in human hepatic cells treated with clinically relevant concentrations of this drug. EFV-treated cells had altered mitochondria, characterized by a relative increase in mitochondrial mass and defective morphology. This was followed by induction of autophagy as shown by the presence of autophagic vacuoles and the presence of the specific autophagic marker proteins microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain 3 and Beclin-1. Importantly, whereas moderate levels of EFV activated autophagy, higher concentrations led to blockage in the autophagic flux, a condition that promotes "autophagic stress" and produces severe cellular damage. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of autophagy exacerbated the deleterious effect of EFV on cell survival/proliferation promoting apoptosis, which suggests that autophagy acts as an adaptive mechanism of cell survival. Conclusion: Clinical concentrations of EFV induce autophagy and, in particular, mitophagy in hepatic cells. Activation of this process promotes cell survival, but exceeding a certain threshold of mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with an autophagic overload or stress. This effect could be involved in the EFV-associated hepatotoxicity and may constitute a new mechanism implicated in the genesis of drug-induced liver damage.
Efavirenz (EFV) is the most widely used non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor applied in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the combined pharmacological treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus infection. Its use has been associated with the development of several adverse events including hepatotoxicity. The molecular pathogenesis of this effect is poorly understood but recent reports have highlighted features of mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatic cells exposed to clinically relevant concentrations of EFV. In this study, we investigated the activation of autophagy and, in particular, mitophagy, in human hepatic cells exposed to EFV. We detected the presence of altered mitochondria with abnormal morphology and relative increase in mitochondrial mass. Several autophagic markers reveal specific induction of autophagy. Of special note, while moderate levels of EFV activate autophagy, higher concentrations exceeding the threshold of mitochondrial dysfunction, lead to a blockage in the autophagic flux, thus promoting "autophagic stress". Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy exacerbates the deleterious effect of EFV on cell survival/proliferation thereby promoting apoptosis, a finding which points to the fact that autophagy is triggered as a rescue mechanism enabling cell survival. The effect described in this study could be involved in the EFV-associated hepatotoxicity. It may constitute a new mechanism implicated in the genesis of pharmacological liver damage and in the recovery of hepatic homeostasis upon a drug-induced cellular insult.
Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) widely used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection therapy. It has been associated with hepatotoxic effects and alterations in lipid and body fat composition. Given the importance of the liver in lipid regulation, we have evaluated the effects of clinically used concentrations of EFV on the mitochondria and lipid metabolism of human hepatic cells in vitro. Mitochondrial function was rapidly undermined by EFV to an extent that varied with the concentration employed; in particular, respiration and intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were reduced whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increased. Results in isolated mitochondria suggest that the mechanism responsible for these actions was a specific inhibition of complex I of the respiratory chain. The reduction in energy production triggered a compensatory mechanism mediated by the enzyme adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the master switch of cellular bioenergetics. Fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated a rapid intracellular increase of neutral lipids, usually in the form of droplets. This was prevented by the AMPK inhibitor compound C and by removal of fatty acids from the culture medium. These effects were not reproduced by Nevirapine, another NNRTI. EFV is clinically coadministered with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Evaluation of one of the most common combination, EFV/Lamivudine/Abacavir, revealed that the effects of EFV on ROS production were enhanced. CONCLUSION: Clinical concentrations of EFV induce bioenergetic stress in hepatic cells by acutely inhibiting mitochondrial function. This new mechanism of mitochondrial interference leads to an accumulation of lipids in the cytoplasm that is mediated by activation of AMPK.
Gastrin release is affected by gastric inflammatory conditions. Antral G cells respond to inflammatory mediators by increasing gastrin secretion. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that gastrin exerts immunomodulatory and proinflammatory effects. Gastrin could be a contributing factor to these pathologies, which may constitute a new justification for pharmacological blockade of gastrin action.
Functional impairment of endothelial activity (endothelial dysfunction) precedes the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This condition is a result of a reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), a well known vasodilator, which is mainly due to increased NO degradation caused by its reaction with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although there are several conditions that contribute independently to endothelial dysfunction, such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia, increased oxidative stress seems to play a key role. In addition to their original pharmacological properties, drugs used clinically at present, including anti-hypertension reagents, angiotensin receptor blockers and anti-hyperlipidemic reagents such as statins, protect various organs via anti-oxidative stress mechanisms. Moreover, some substances with antioxidant properties, such as vitamin C or vitamin E, have been used to eradicate the oxidative stress associated with CVD. The results of the clinical trials employing anti-oxidative stress reagents in patients with CVD are contradictory, which could be a result of inadequate study design or selected targets. This review considers the process of endothelial dysfunction and CVD from a mitochondrial perspective and evaluates strategies currently under development for the targeted delivery of antioxidants or NO to mitochondria. It endorses the idea that selectively targeting specific antioxidants and NO donors to mitochondria is an effective strategy for modulating mitochondrial respiration and ROS production and protecting mitochondria against oxidative stress.
Trefoil (TFF) peptides are involved in gastrointestinal mucosal restitution. An hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)-dependent induction of TFF genes has been reported in gastric epithelial cells. Nitric oxide (NO) is associated with mucosal damage and modulates HIF-1 activity. The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of iNOS-derived NO in HIF-1alpha stabilization and TFF gene expression in damaged gastric mucosa. Aspirin caused gastric injury that peaked 6 h after dosing and returned to normality at 24 h. iNOS mRNA expression occurs in the corpus in parallel with damage. Blockade of iNOS activity did not modify gastric lesions induced by aspirin but delayed mucosal healing. Aspirin induced HIF-1alpha stabilization and TFF2 mRNA up-regulation in the mucosa, but these effects were diminished when iNOS activity was inhibited. Results obtained using a coculture setup showed that iNOS-derived NO from activated macrophages induced HIF-1alpha stabilization, TFF gene expression, and accelerated wound healing in cultured epithelial cells. Finally, transient silencing of endogenous HIF-1alpha in epithelial cells significantly undermined activated macrophage-induced TFF gene expression. Evidence suggests that the iNOS-derived NO associated with NSAID-induced gastric injury is implicated in mucosal restitution via the HIF-1-mediated induction of TFF genes.
Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Hcy is a nonprotein amino acid derivative that is generated from the methionine cycle, which provides the methyl group for essentially all biological methylation reactions. Although plasma Hcy levels are elevated in patients with cardiovascular disease, the mechanisms that regulate Hcy homeostasis remain poorly defined. In this study, we found that the expression of key enzymes involved in Hcy metabolism is induced in the liver in response to fasting. This induction coincides with increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha, a transcriptional coactivator that regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial function. PGC-1alpha stimulates the expression of genes involved in Hcy metabolism in cultured primary hepatocytes as well as in the liver. Adenoviral-mediated expression of PGC-1alpha in vivo leads to elevated plasma Hcy levels. In contrast, mice deficient in PGC-1alpha have lower plasma Hcy concentrations. These results define a novel role for the PGC-1alpha coactivator pathway in the regulation of Hcy homeostasis and suggest a potential pathogenic mechanism that contributes to hyperhomocysteinemia.
Nitric oxide (NO) decreases cellular oxygen (O(2)) consumption by competitively inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase. Here, we show that endogenously released endothelial NO, either basal or stimulated, can modulate O(2) consumption both throughout the thickness of conductance vessels and in the microcirculation. Furthermore, we have shown that such modulation regulates O(2) distribution to the surrounding tissues. We have demonstrated these effects by measuring O(2) consumption in blood vessels in a hypoxic chamber and O(2) distribution in the microcirculation using the fluorescent oxygen-probe Ru(phen)(3)(2+). Removal of NO by physical or pharmacological means, or in eNOS(-/-) mice, abolishes this regulatory mechanism. Our results indicate that, in addition to its well-known effect on the regulation of vascular tone, endothelial NO plays a major role in facilitating the distribution of O(2), an action which is crucial for the adaptation of tissues, including the vessel wall itself, to hypoxia. It is possible that changes in the distribution of O(2) throughout the vessel wall may be implicated in the origin of vascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis.
Gastric mucosal inflammation is frequently associated with hypergastrinemia, and a correlation exists between the level of gastrin and degree of gastritis. We have previously observed that gastrin promotes leukocyte-endothelial interactions and contributes to Helicobacter-induced inflammation in the rat mesentery. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate a possible proinflammatory activity of gastrin in humans. The interaction between human leukocytes [U-937 cells, peripheral blood polymorphonuclear (PMN), and peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells] and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was analyzed in static and dynamic conditions. The endothelial expression of adhesion molecules [P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1] was analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy screening. Gastrin increased the static adhesion of U-937 cells to HUVEC (1 h; 10(-9) M: 122 +/- 9%; 10(-8) M: 143 +/- 17%; 10(-7) M: 162 +/- 14% vs. control, all P < 0.05). Incubation of HUVEC with gastrin (4 h) also increased PBMC rolling (vehicle: 63 +/- 12; 10(-9) M: 109 +/- 29; 10(-8) M: 141 +/- 24; 10(-7) M: 261 +/- 16 leukocytes/min, P < 0.05) and adhesion (vehicle: 3 +/- 2, 10(-9) M: 11 +/- 4, 10(-8) M: 17 +/- 5, 10(-7) M: 15 +/- 5 leukocytes/mm(2), all P < 0.05) in the parallel-plate flow chamber. Treatment of PBMC with gastrin had no effects. The cholecystokinin (CCK)-2 receptor antagonist (L-365,260, 10(-7) M) prevented the effects of gastrin. P-selectin and VCAM-1 expression were enhanced by gastrin, and neutralizing antibodies against these molecules prevented PBMC rolling and adhesion. Gastrin did not affect the interactions between HUVEC and PMN. Gastrin induces interactions between human mononuclear leukocytes and endothelial cells through the activation of CCK-2 receptors and the enhancement of endothelial P-selectin and VCAM-1.
Mitochondria produce large amounts of free radicals and play an important role in the life and death of a cell, regulating the signalling, metabolism, and energy production needed for cellular function. In this way, mitochondrial oxidative damage and dysfunction contribute to a number of cell pathologies that are manifested through a range of conditions that include cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Although the molecular mechanisms responsible for mitochondria-mediated disease processes are not yet completely understood, oxidative stress definitely seems to play an important role. When examined at the protein level, both expression levels and protein modifications are altered by oxidative stress. While these effects have been studied in the past by classic biochemical methods, recent developments in proteomics have allowed the oxidative stress response to be studied in more depth. The focus of this work is the mitochondrial proteome/genome interplay that is currently believed to be implicated in a range of human diseases. Particular attention is given to the current knowledge of the role of mitochondria in the development of oxidative-stress-based diseases; e.g. CVD is highlighted together with the prospective proteomics perspective as an alternative prognostic and diagnostic tool for interpreting many mitochondria-related anomalies. Accordingly, strategies for the targeted delivery of antioxidants to mitochondria are being developed. The insight provided by recent proteomic research and the effects of mitochondrial-antioxidants on possible interventions are also discussed.
Induction of trefoil factor (TFF)1, TFF2 and TFF3 by hypoxia is mediated by hypoxia inducible factor-1: implications for gastric mucosal healing.
Ras/ERK signaling plays an important role in T cell activation and development. We recently reported that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO regulates T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent ERK activation by a cGMP-independent mechanism. Here, we explore the mechanisms through which eNOS exerts this regulation. We have found that eNOS-derived NO positively regulates Ras/ERK activation in T cells stimulated with antigen on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Intracellular activation of N-, H-, and K-Ras was monitored with fluorescent probes in T cells stably transfected with eNOS-GFP or its G2A point mutant, which is defective in activity and cellular localization. Using this system, we demonstrate that eNOS selectively activates N-Ras but not K-Ras on the Golgi complex of T cells engaged with APC, even though Ras isoforms are activated in response to NO from donors. We further show that activation of N-Ras involves eNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation on Cys(118), suggesting that upon TCR engagement, eNOS-derived NO directly activates N-Ras on the Golgi. Moreover, wild-type but not C118S N-Ras increased TCR-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of Cys(118) contributes to activation-induced T cell death. Our data define a signaling mechanism for the regulation of the Ras/ERK pathway based on the eNOS-dependent differential activation of N-Ras and K-Ras at specific cell compartments.